Monday, 30 August 2021


Data are collected for several reasons. It can be either to determine the audience demographics, interests of the people, age groups, to learn about your brand awareness, update the data bases, and many more.

Feedback from the customers is also a kind of data which is helpful in improving the product quality and to match the demand of the customers.

Data plays very important role for the business in understanding their audience, their demands, the trend in the market, and helps the companies in driving the future marketing strategies in order to confirm the success of the brand for long terms.

Every company when it is startup or a large brand, they should know the types of data. Basically data are of three types. These are:

  1. Census

  1. Sample survey

  1. Administrative data

Census data

Census data is a kind of primary data which is collected directly from the first person. It is collected from door to door. Government also user to conduct census surveys every ten year in order to observe the various field like population, growth, birth, death, literacy rata and other so many filed if required. This kind of data covers multiple information and is most accurate kind of data.

Census data is most popular kind of data which is helpful in calculating the population, age group, literacy, population growth rate, livestock census, production, etc and different variants of population.

Businesses and organizations can also conduct census in order to determine their brand awareness, the demand of the public, how much their products match the demands of the public and many more. 

Suitability of census data collection

This method is applicable to small size population and other subject of matter. For example we can calculate population of a country more easily in comparison to world population.

This method of data collection or this kind of data can be applicable to widely diverse item which depends on the suitability for intensive examination of different item.

The census data is useful in collecting more related information from one effort. For illustration, along with the calculation of population of state, we can also collect data related to marriage rate and other factors. Since the census data is collected individually, it is more time consuming and requires more efforts but it is most accurate kind of data.

Merits of Census data

  • Reliable and accuracy

Since we study each and every subject or the item, the outcomes of census data are accurate and highly definitive.

  • Extensive information

Information gathered from the census data is extensive and therefore, more meaningful. Since this data covers all relatable variants, thus able to provide more extensive information.

  • Study of diverse characteristic

While calculating one variants, in census data method collection, we can calculate the relatable variants as well and thus allows the researchers to study diverse characteristics.

  • Study of complex investigation

When any study is of complex nature and it is necessary to study each item, in that case only census method can provide the desired result.

Demerits of Census data

  • Census method is very costly and time consuming and this is the reason why it is generally not use for ordinary investigation.
  • Only the government and some big institution can afford this method as it requires large man power.
  • Training of large number of enumerators become essential
  • Census data is generally cannot be applied for large investigation except in few condition.

Sampling method

Sampling methods is data collection method where data is collected from samples. In this method, instead of studying the entire population, only sample group which represents the entire population is studies and used for data collection. 

The sampling method depends on theory of probability. This data type relies on two theory, first is the law of statistical regularity, and the second is inertia of large number.

According to law of statistical regularity, random or adequate sample or sample of adequate size selected from large population tends to possess the same characteristics as those of the population.

Every item of population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample.

According to the inertia of large number, more the size of the sample, better will be the chance of the accurate results.

Merits of Sample data

  • This method is very economical as only some units of the population are studied.
  • It requires manpower
  • It is comparatively less costly
  • This kind of data is time saving as we study only limited number of item. Error can be studies easily.
  • Sampling method of data is more feasible in situation of large investigation than the census method which generally involves unaffordable cost.

Demerits of Sample data

  • Sample collection is a difficult process. In the case of large investigation, collection of samples from the large population or larger number of items, it is quite hectic to select sample out of the total population without any biasness.
  • Biasness is inevitable and this can lead to less accuracy in the results.
  • In the case of poor sample collection which is not a accurate representative of the populationthe conclusion can go wrong.

Administrative data

Administrative data is collect by government and other organization to give information on general facts like taxation, death records etc. This data is collected during the day to day operation in the organization. For example, death rates, divorce rates, birth data etc are registered during the governmental operations and this gives the administrative data as well.

Merits of Administrative data

Since the data is collected from the entire population, it is accurate and having zero variance.

It is less time consuming as the data keeps getting collected along with the day to day operations.

Regular operations in the organization collects this kind of data and thus less burden in the end.

Demerits of administrative data

This kind of data is applicable to limited items.

Data remains limited on the population on whom the administrators are keeping records.

This kind of data can be used only for limited time periods as it keep changing over time.

The bottom line

So this is a complete guide on different kind of data, their merits, and demerits. 


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