What is the meaning of outsourcing and the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing?

Outsourcing is another trend to reshape any business. It refers to businesses hiring a third party to perform their activities based on a contract. There are several types of outsources services hired by companies such as software developers, network services, disaster recovery, and many more. Many companies prefer to choose outsourced services onshore, near shore, and offshore. The preface of outsourcing services is reducing the cost with the maximum outcome. Every business does not have all types of experts in their business so they choose outsourcing services for their particular projects. Several things include outsourcing services because the range of outsourcing is very wide in a global phenomenon. Contracting based outsourcing services Several companies or agencies are working on contractual base services. They provide certain types of services to a company like technological services, cleaning services, advertisement services, marketing services, and many more. The process may be outsourced to a captive unit Many multinational companies deal in diverse products and markets in several nations. The processes of recruitment, selection, and training records are very complex, for solving this problem they hire outsourced services for all these services. This makes it easy to control all activities and helps cost reduction of the process. There are some tasks performed by the internal business that can be the reason for the cost increment, so in such cases sources services are more beneficial for business. Need for outsourcing for business Outsourcing services can be the reason for innovation several times. In this competitive world, businesses have pressure to perform well and give high-quality products at a lower cost to the consumer. Technology is one of the examples of outsourcing services that are hired by several businesses for many purposes. Some of the major reasons for the advantages of outsources services are listed below. Focus on effectiveness Many businesses are performing several activities at the same time, but they do not have expertise in every activity of the business, and them focusing just a few areas and the core of the business. Solution of such problems business hire outsources services for required areas of business. We already know the importance of utilization of resources or time for completion of any project so outsources is one of the sourness that makes possible both things. Businesses can hire outsourced services for performing several activities like purchasing, accounting and financial, HR and administration, R &D, and many more. This makes it easy to focus on their core areas and outsources services can take for selective activities for better efficiency and effectiveness. Quest for excellence Businesses can take advantage of the division of labor and specialization. Outsourced services make it possible for firms to pursue excellence in two ways. First businesses can excel in the activities that they can do the best with a limited focus. Second, they can excel in their capabilities by contracting with other companies for weaker areas and giving full attention to core areas of business. Cost reduction Global competition increases not only the quality of goods but also global prices for services. Price plays a vital role in survival in the competition. Businesses take advantage of labor division and specialization, improving the quality of goods by hiring outsources. Outsources services play a vital role in cost reduction because they provide the same services at a large scale to a large number of organizations. The availability of the same services at various prices plays an important factor in cost reduction. Growth by alliance Businesses can avail of services of others and the requirement of investment is also reduced because other businesses are investing in those activities for business benefits. If a business gives their stake to outsource services then they can take advantage of services at low cost and provide quality services also. Other than the financial growth business can also learn so many services and knowledge. This is one of the common reasons for hiring outsourced services a lot. Change in economic development Outsourced services stimulate the entrepreneurship, employment, exports, revenue of the nation, and many more. There are huge contributions of outsources for increasing the revenue of India. An example of outsources of services is the IT sector of India, there has been tremendous growth in entrepreneurship, employment and export, and many more. Limitations of the outsources There are several sufferings also exist for outsources services which are listed below. Confidentiality Outsources services depend on sharing a lot of information and knowledge with outsourced partners. If the outsourced partner fails to preserve the confidential information then it can be the reason for a huge loss. Ethical concerns There are a lot of businesses that hire outsourced services, but outsourced hire child labor in their factories. Several companies are forbidding the laws against child labor. The companies are using child labor for cutting their cost but it affects so many ethical prospects. Sweet shopping The business is trying to maximize its profits at a low cost of men power. But sometimes they exploit the manpower of services providers. Mostly it is observed whether it manufacture and IT sector outsources services became fails to build the competency and capabilities beyond their skills. This is the reason that outsourced services are hired for specific work of doing rather than the development of any thinking skills. Bottom Here in this guide, I give you the information about outsources services advantages and disadvantages of business. This will help you for analyzing which types of services firms can hire to maximize their profits.

What is the meaning of management by objective and advantages and disadvantages?

Management by objectives refers to strategic management that aims to enhance the performance of the business by clearly defining the objectives of an organization that is understood by the management and employees. According to several theories, management by objectives aims is setting goals and participation in planning and encouraging commitment among employees. But there are many management philosophies and types in the world of business. These types of management strategies differ from one another. In some cases, a few of the management can be mixed for better results for specific requirements. But the management by objectives method is one of the most common management types adopted by businesses. The popularity of this method is proven results beheading the adoption of this method of management by businesses. Management by the organization is a systematic and organized approach that emphasizes the achievement of goals. In the long run, this allows the management to change the organization’s mindset to become more result-oriented. The concept of management by objectives The core aims of management by objectives are the alignment of company goals and subordinate objectives properly, so everyone in the organization works towards achieving the same organizational goal. To identify the organizational goals, the superior managers usually follow the techniques such as goals, questions, and metrics. The process of management by objectives dividing goals into employees To set the objectives for the employees, the following steps are followed. The management divides the organizational goals into parts and assigns chunks to departmental managers. Senior managers and department managers perform several activities for the achievement of assigned goals of the organization. Further, the senior managers assign the objectives to the operational management. The operational management further divided their goals and objectives and identify the activities required for the achievement of the objectives. These sub-objectives and activities are further divided among the rest of the staff. When the process of dividing objects and assigning the goals is done then the management gives strong inputs to identify the objectives, time frame for completion, and tracking opinions. Each of the divided goals is tracked by the managers and gives periodic feedback to the objective owners. At the end of the agreed period (usually time is almost one year and more than that also), the achievement of the objectives is reviewed, and praise the performance. The basis of performance and outcome of the assessment is used to determine salary increments for the upcoming years and relevant bonuses. This process will help to motivate employees to work more focused on the achievement of goals. Responsibility of individuals Since individuals are empowered to carry outstretched tasks and responsibilities under MBO. Individuals’ responsibilities play a vital role in the success of MBO. In MBO, there is a link built between the strategic thinking of the upper management and the operational execution of the lower level of the hierarchy. The responsibility of achieving the objectives is passed from the organization to each individual in the organization. Management by objectives is mainly achieved through self-control. Advantages of management by objectives The term “management by objectives” was first coined by Peter Drucker in 1954. Drucker tried to attach the MBO level to results-oriented evaluations. The main purpose of MBO is to motivate people rather than control them. Management by objectives can simply be defined as a program that encompasses specific goals, participative set, for an explicit period, with feedback on goal progress. According to several economists, an MBO program or process consists of four common ingredients. These are specificity, participative decision making, an explicit period, and program feedback. A brief description of these follows. Specificity The objectives in MBO should be clear and precise that can be measured and evaluated. The clarity in terms of goals, cost reduction, communication, and other required things for achieving goals. The objectives and measures of the organization should be clear for the achievement of organizational goals. Participative decision In MBO goals are not imposed on people if they do not take participate in the decision. The superior and subordinate are jointly set objectives of the organization that will motivate employees to perform their best for achieving the goals. Explicit time Time is very important for every business and other businesses also. MBO emphasizes on the decided objects are complete within in specific period. Completion of the goals within a specific time not only saves a lot of time but also other goals and business activities. Performance feedback This is the final ingredient of the MBO program, this activity is feedback on performance. Feedback is very important for the improvement of any business activity. It includes continuous and systematic measurement and review of performance. Based on the corrective actions are taken to achieve the planned activities.

Describe the important features of the Japanese management

Economic of Japan is one of the largest economies in the world. Japan contributes a lot to the world economy. After the second world war, Japan worked on several industries and sectors of the growing nation such as education, plants, and equipment, adopts different industrial techniques, and management strategies, increase the world trade framework, investment in research and development, and many more. Management of Japan is very good and different policies adopted Japan. Japanese management emphasizes the need for information flow from the bottom of the company to the top. Forcefulness does not see as a prerequisite for effective leadership. The most important part of Japan's management policy earns the loyalty of workers. Japanese workers give their whole life dedicated to companies and working with full dedication is the one of most important for the growth of industries. The key task for Japanese management is to provide an environment of work in which the group can flourish. Leaders are open to the return approaches, they expect team members to keep them fully informed of developments. This is a good approach for forming a relationship with team members and teamwork as well. There are several other features of Japanese management. An important feature of Japanese management The most important features of Japanese management are listed below. Lifetime employment assurance Organizations in Japan assure employees of lifetime employment to work. The workers have the choice to work until they decide to retire. This feature makes Japan different and loyal employees can be the reason for competitive advantage. The worker feels secure for employment in any situation of the economy that motivates them to work with full efficiency. But every employee does not have the security of lifetime employment. There are certain rules and regulations. Discrimination The Japanese ideology does not an example of discrimination between male and female employees. They provide equal opportunity to males and females and salary also. Discrimination does not exist during working hours. If the women are married or not married then they may not suffer from any promotional issues regarding marital status. Recruitment The Japanese companies and their works play important role in the representation of the business elite of Japan. The superior post of business of japans companies depends on educational background. Placement and increment of workers are heavily based on the qualification. The people who are not qualified in the most highly rated colleges, rarely get the opportunity to work for large cooperation houses. The career of the students and individuals are dependent on education and more important college attendance play a decisive role in career and recruitment. Seniority remuneration policy The Japanese wages policy highly depends on the number of year’s work. This promotes to get long-term loyalty from employees to the firm. The dedication and commitment of employees play a crucial role in business. The reason for the seniority-based promotion and remuneration is to create a positive relationship between the length services and acquiring good knowledge and skill for the same business. Ringi system The ring system is known as the decision-making system in the Japanese. The Japanese management information flow from bottom to top, according to this system low-level manager discuss new idea and strategies among themselves and analyze them properly before presenting them to high-level managers. Low-level employees present the idea to high-level managers then discuss the idea and arrive at the new required changes and own consensus. This process continues until the final ideal comes to authorities and implement for projects. This process allows low-level business managers for strengthening their decision-making qualities. Rigorous Training Training plays a vital role in Japanese management. They emphasize the training until the core staff does not match those levels they required for benefit of the organization. This is the reason they have one of the fast team works in the world, the final work is implemented in the hands of teams and core staff for the achievement of organization goals. A good training system can be the reason for the time saving for the more organizational contract. Internal labor market The Japanese management emphasizes the use of internal workers as assets of the organization. The Japanese management promotes the employees within the organization as against the external recruitment according to their skill and experience. This process helps utilize skills and experience from a wide range of workers in favor of the organization. Relations of harmony Generally, The Japanese people are more harmonious than any nation in the world. In the Japanese harmony is one of the features that reflect the Japanese culture. Harmony makes it easy to make good bonds with employees and work. The Japanese management takes care of welfare packages, health care measures, education of their kids, and many more. These qualities of Japanese management create a good relationship between employers and workers. Opportunity for innovations The Japanese management system is one of the great management that promotes innovation very much. They spend a lot on innovative ideas for the benefit of the organization, they offer many rewards and winning money or dividend to employees who create innovative ideas for the organization. Japan is known for advanced technology used for many purposes that make a developed nation. Opportunity for innovation is one of the great reasons for the development and one of the cleanest nations in the world. Bottom The Japanese management system is emphasizing the work and employees of the organization. I hope this piece of information will help to understand the Japanese management well and any business can adopt policies of Japanese management for their business also.

What is the meaning of managerial effectiveness and elements?

Managerial effectiveness refers to the skillful manager who exhibits both leadership and management t qualities. Effective managerial can help to achieve organizational goals, increase productivity, revenue and profits, work stratification, diversification, growth, and many more. The most important aim of managerial effectiveness is optimum allocation and utilization of available organizational resources for achieving the organizational goals at minimum cost. They are required to build relationships among the employees and staff and to motivate them to achieve individual goals and group goals as well. There are many things included in managerial effectiveness that are following A combined effect Defining managerial effectiveness depends on an organization’s management model. One way to look at managerial effectiveness is this it’s the combined effect of a manager who uses different management tools and techniques. The combined effects include many things like communication, changes and innovation, data, knowledge, communication technologies, and many more. In this model, a manager brings all his actions together, providing different kinds of assistance to employees, such as helping them adjust to changes and come up with new ideas that lead to innovation. Planning and execution Another way to look at managerial effectiveness concerns the approach a manager takes to people for achieving the desired outcome. Some managers are less focused on interpersonal skills, perhaps having zero charisma, and are keenly focused on planning and execution. They set aims and goals; create effective plans for implementing those goals, take full responsibility for their decision, and share the plans with employees through effective communication skills. General versus situation-specific There are two ways to look at managerial effectiveness across different organizations. Some aspects of generic and grate performance that embody managerial effectiveness might be found in an organization’s definition of an ideal manager. Similar to managers that represent managerial effectiveness depending on the situation in which they occur. Many organizations recruit managers with different effective qualities based on the situation they might face. Qualities of effective managers Managerial effectiveness may include a list of qualities or skills associated with effective managers. The manager should have skills like verbal communication, effective time management and stress, decision-making skills, recognizing, defining, and solving problems, motivating employees when required, influencing others, delegating, setting goals and vision, team building, solving conflicts, and many more. The list shows how managers must have a wide range of skills and must be an effective multi- task. The managers have abilities to maintain their staff performance that will important for evaluating their worth to the organization. What are the key elements of managerial effectiveness? Elements of the managerial effectiveness The position and the achievement of the organization depend on managerial effectiveness. The manager does not only perform the function of management but also acts as an administrator and an entrepreneur. The skill managers examine the present and put all efforts into creating a bright future. Several elements make great managerial effectiveness in the business which are following. Knowledge and foresight Make sure the right people are doing the right job at the time. The managerial skill of a manager plays a key role in the success of the business. The managers decide what they want to do for adding value to the growth of the business. Taking decisions and well-defined objects, required strategies, and many more things for maintaining the growth of business all depend on the knowledge and experience of the leader. Knowledge and intelligence play a very crucial role in managerial effectiveness. Organization Managerial effectiveness refers to the organization itself. The highly innovative and creative manager may not allow any experiment in strategy for the betterment of performance because the organizational structure does not allow doing what they want to do. The structure, management, design, size, culture, and work environment are largely controlled by the manager of the organization. Effective team making Set context and boundaries for your teams, and manage their expectation to ensure there is the right balance of access and lead time. The team is very important for achieving the goals of the organization. Only a manager can not able to achieve the aims of the business. Managerial effectiveness teaches them hoe manage a team effectively and motivates them to work for themself and the organization also. Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is one of the most important qualities of managerial effectiveness. Good managerial effectiveness and entrepreneurship ensure the future of business is next level compared to today. The success depends on the entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship required hard work, intelligence, innovation, and creativity to keep the business successful and maintain tremendous growth. Environment The workplace environment must be good for the operation of the business. Managers need to adopt the strategy according to the demand of the environment. The business needs to change its ideas to influence the environment and became a market leader in the industry. One task at the task at a time Effective managerial do not delegate too many tasks and max out their employees. It is very easy for a manager to keep piling new work, without taking any of the previously delegated work off the list. They know it is their job to set enough contexts that a direct report can balance their priorities. On the other hand, managers have to do multi-tasks at a time but they can different teams for completing the task. Employees need clarity for their work so multi-tasking can create confusion in employees.

What is the meaning of power in business and what sources of power?

Power is the ability to get things done. Power can influence the behavior of the other to achieve some goal or objectives. Sometimes people resist attempts to make them do certain things, but an effective leader can overcome that resistance. Although people sometimes feel that power became evil or corrupt, power is a fact of organizational life and in itself is neither good nor bad. Leaders can use power as strength and constrain them, to serve the organization’s goals or undermine them. Another way to view power is as a resource that people use in relationships. When a leader influences subordinates, it is called downward power. We can also think of this as someone having power over someone else. On the other hand, subordinates can also exercise upward power by trying to influence the decision of their leader. Indeed, leaders depend on their teams to get things done and in a way are subject to the power of team members. Leaders have immense power it depends on how they use it effectively as a strength of the business and use it for growth as a business. Power and authority play a crucial role in business and there are several sources of power. The sources of power Power comes in several ways, each of which has different effects on the target of that power. Some derive from individual characteristics; others draw on aspects of an organization’s structure. The major sources of power are six types that are listed below. Legitimate power Legitimate power is also known as positional power. This is power when people have power with their status and a certain position held in an organization. The organization gives certain power to coordinate and directs the activities of the subordinate. Legitimate power usually involves formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. The strength of the power is also depending on the structure of the organization and position location. For example, a high power level exercises a high position, and a low level of power exercises a low level of position. The distribution of power is relying on the organization because the organizations vary in how much they want to grant to individuals. Reward power Reward power refers to the power that comes from the ability to confer valued material rewards or create other positive incentives. The power depends on the reward such as the great the perceived values of rewards, the great power achieve for example promotion, increment in payment, and many more. It refers to the degree to which individuals can provide external motivation to others through benefits or gifts. It can be achieved, the manager who uses praise and recognition has also great sources of getting this type of power. Referent power Referent power refers to the ability of an individual to attract others and build loyalty and respect. It depends on the personality and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personality traits, such as charisma or likeability, and many more. People want to follow that person emotionally and willingly to follow the respected person. People may be respectful to the referent power holders because of their genuine actions toward them. These positive feelings became the basis for interpersonal influences. Expert power Expert power is referring to the skill, knowledge, and experience of a person. This power comes with a certain person when the organization needs particular expertise and knowledge. The area of this type of power is very limited because of the person who takes expertise in a particular area and field. Coercive power Coercive power refers to those powers that are used for punishment or sanction and other negative consequences. Coercive power will help in controlling employees and ensuring that they adhere to the organization’s policies and norms. It is seeking to force or compel behavior rather than to influence it by persuasion. Employees are forced by the authority to comply with their orders. These can include direct punishment or the withholding of desired resources or rewards. Coercive power relies on fear to induce compliance. Informative power Informative power comes from access to facts and knowledge that others find useful or valuable. That access can indicate a relationship with other power holders and convey status that creates a positive impression. Information power may serve as the basis for beneficial exchange with others who seek that information. But the information power is short-term power, for the achievement of this power does not require any credibility. Power tactics People use a variety of power tactics to push or prompt others into action. We can group these tactics into three categories- behavioral, national, and structure. Behavioral tactics Behavioral tactics can be soft or hard. Soft tactics refer to direct and interpersonal and also include several collaborations or social interactions. On the other hand, the hard tactics can be harsh, forceful, and directly related to concrete outcomes. Rational tactics Rational tactics refer to making use of reasoning, logic, objective judgment, and many more. But the nonrational tactics rely on emotionalism and subjective, for example, every person bargaining and persuasion (rational), evasion (non-rational). Structural tactics Structural tactics exploit aspects of the relationship between individual roles and positions. Bilateral tactics, such as collaboration and negotiation, involve reciprocity on the parts of both the person influencing and the target. Unilateral tactics, on the other hand, are enacted without any participation on the part of the target.

What is the meaning of strategic management and the process of Management strategic planning?

The term strategic management refers to the entire scope of strategic-decision making activities in an organization. The strategic management concept includes various strategies that managers adopt to achieve better performance and advantages competitive for their organization. Strategic management has evolved and will continue to evolve. Sometimes, managers use the terms strategic management, strategic planning, long term planning interchangeably. It is the continuous process of planning, monitoring, analyzing, and evaluating all that is necessary for an organization to meet its goals and objectives. Evaluation is very important for making an action plan successful and making changes when the desired outcomes are not being produced. Here in this guide, we will discuss the main objectives of strategic planning in the business. Process of the management strategic planning Strategic planning refers to administering the formulation and implementation of the strategy. Strategic planning is a process that helps an organization’s leader for defining their visions for the future and help in identify their mission and objectives. There are four major steps of strategic management which are listing as below. Environmental analysis Before any formulation of a competitive strategy, an organization needs to consider some important elements. It includes company weakness and strength, personal values of the implementers, broader societal expectations, and many more. These elements are very important and analyzed thoroughly and understand the position of business and path of business as well. Some external factors that highly affect the business planning, include political, economic, social, and technological (PEST). The industrial environment analysis framework helps to determine the competitive rivalry and therefore attractiveness of a market. it is used to determine the portfolio of offerings the organization will provide and which market. SWOT is analysis is one of the common and widely used frameworks, which examine both internal and external elements of the organization. SWOT refers to strength and weakness and external opportunities and threats. It helps examine the organization’s resources in the context of its environment. Prioritizing of objects Once you analyze the current environment and situation of the company in the market then the next step is to identify the object and goal. Now you make a strategy according to the goals and vision of the company along with considering the weakness and strengths of the company. Objectives should be distinct and measurable to assist the leaders in how they can reach long-term strategic goals and outline the initial steps. They need to decide on goals with a timeline and identify the resources which need to achieve the goals of the business. Scenario planning Several strategies use scenario planning techniques to deal with the changes. The fast-changing business environment is too uncertain for us to find sustainable value in formulas of excellent or competitive advantages. The scenario of strategic planning is also used to forecast the possible challenges face and make strategies according to how effectively come out of the challenges. Scenario planning is a technique in which multiple outcomes can be developed, their implications assessed, and their likeliness of occurrence evaluated. Scenario planning is about insight, complexity, and subtlety; it is not about formal analysis and numbers. Scenario planning is depending on how quickly leaders analyze the situation and make changes in the strategy to meet the goals of the organization. It impacts highly on the vision of the organization and leads to providing competitive advantages in the market. Research about a different way of achieving objectives There are many ways to reach certain goals. Leaders need to make efforts to research various ways and adopt the best strategy to achieve set objectives and goals. Finding the different ways for completing a certain goal is very important because it offers flexibility when they are instructing their team for meeting the goal. Some goals can be achieved with a few strategies, another handsome of goals have carried several ways of solutions to achieve the goals. Once the leaders complete the research on the ways of achievement, then they need to examine closely and find the best potential way of solution. Measuring and controlling implementation Once the strategy is determined, various goals and measures may be established to chart a course for the organization. Measures help performance and control implementation of the strategy. Tools such as the balanced scorecard and strategy maps help to crystallize the strategy and analyze what are loopholes in business performance. These tools of measures help to know the financial, production, marketing, organization development, and innovation measures to get a balanced perspective. There are several advanced technologies and data availability that enable the gathering of more precise performance information and allow the managers to take a much more analytical view of their business than before. The strategy may also be organized as a series of initiatives or programs, each of which comprises one or more projects. They can also use various monitoring and feedback established, such as regular meetings between divisional and cooperative management to control implementation also. Evaluation This is the key component of strategic management which is often overlooked when planning is evaluated. There are many ways of evaluating what analyze the priorities and plans have been achieved or not, one such method is responsive evaluation. Responsive evaluation provides a naturalistic and humanistic approach to program evolution. In expanding beyond the goal-oriented or pre-ordinates evaluation design, responsive evaluation takes into consideration the program’s background condition and transaction among shareholders. It is largely emergent that the design unfolds as contact is made with stakeholders.

What are the major steps of organizational development process?

 Organizational development is a strategy or an effort, which is planned and managed from the top, these plans changes in value and operations for increasing growth of organizational effectiveness. Development is a continuous process and it accommodates in itself many changes that occur in science and technology, economic, markets, political environment, education, knowledge, values, attitude, and many more. Organization development is continuous development and it can affect by the development process. The organizations have to change the beliefs, value and its structure to accommodate the new ideas, beliefs and new technologies for progress. Whenever, any changes in market and compulsion for new product development to remain competitive are instrument for organizational changes in the globalisation era, any organization. If the firms are not ready to accept such changes then it may to face extinction. Thus the continuous change is an organizational imperative, and only organizational development can facilitate such changes. There are a lot of benefits like building trust and confidence in organization, decision making ability, self confidence, and many more. Now, in this guide we will discuss how we take steps to develop an organizational development process.


Organizational development process


It is very complicated process and time consuming also. The minimum time is one year to develop this program and some time continues identifying. There are several different approaches to organizational development but the traditional process has seven steps. The seven steps are following.


Initial diagnosis

Before taking any step for development we need to identify the problem in the business. If the executives recognize the loopholes there in the business that inadequacies may correct by adopting organizational development activities. For implementing the solution, it requires the professional and competent people within the organization to plan and execute organizational development activities. Many companies and business higher consultants and they adopt various methods to identifying the diagnosis. It includes interview of employees, questionnaires, direct observation, analyse of documents and reports for diagnosing the problem.


Data collection


The survey method is one of the oldest method that used to collect the data information for determine the organizational climates and the identifying the behavioural problems. The consultants meet with employees and try to figure out the problems of business. Consulters ask question to employees regarding work, behaviour of leaders, managements, financial, and many more. These meetings will help to how many works are facing similar problems and making report according their answers.


Feedback of data and confrontation


Data collected are analyzed and reviewed by the various work groups formed for this purpose in order to mediate in the areas of disagreement or confrontation of ideas or opinion and to establishment of priorities. Basically feedback process will help to identifying the genuine problem of organization. This will help for which problem organization need confrontation for solution.


Selection and interventional design


The interventional refers the planned activities that are addressed by the system to accomplish desired changes for improvement of business. These planned activities can bring certain changes in the system, which have basic agenda of development organization. There may have several methods but the business select suitable intervention method and design.


Implementation of intervention


The select intervention should be implementing. Intervention may take the form of workshops, feedback of the data participants, group discussion, written exercise, on-the-job activities, redesign of control system, and many more. Intervention is very important step for improvement. Intervention activities are to be implemented steadily as the process is not a short, quick for organization. But it will help in achieve real and lasting changes in the attitude and behaviour of employees.


Action planning and problem resolving


The consulted groups and management groups prepare make specific action plan to solve the specific and identified problems by using data collection. It is one of the most important steps of organization development. Without any good strategy the identified problem cannot solve. Without problem solution growth is impossible for long time.


Team building


During the whole process the consultant emphasis on the examining how can establish an effective team work in the organization. The consultants encourage the employees throughout the process to form into the groups and teams by explaining the advantages of team work. The consultants educate the employees about effective communication and trust each other are essential for good communication. The consultants are divide employees into groups and arrange joint meetings with leader and subordination and teach them how they can work as effective team. 


Evaluation


This is the last step of organization development. It is very long process and also requires continuous careful monitoring to get precise feedback regarding their loopholes. Organizational development programs will helps in making modification whenever is required for business growth. The evolution programs will help to analyze re and post training, the benefits of critique session and hoe much these behaviours patterns are effective or not. Consulters encourages to employees to adopt whatever they learn from organizational development programs. These few steps can be reason of amazing growth organization.  


Bottom

The organizational finally has to evaluate the OD program, find out their utility, and develop the programs further for correcting the deviations and improvement results. This process will help to find out the loopholes and adopt right strategy to resolve problems. Each every step is important because any step is skip that can effects the benefits of the organizational development.              

 

   

   

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a matrix organization?

 When a business starts a project, it can be very crucial for the business to have a good organizational structure in place to define all the aspects of the project. A project has different aspects; it includes a variety of activities and processes from allocating tasks to budgeting. In this situation, organizations adopt the matrix structure. The matrix structure combines the traditional department seen in functional structure with the project teams as well. Further, the matrix structure is a combination of both traditional hierarchies of management, where employees are not only by the team leaders but also by functional managers. 

In the matrix structure, the teams can be temporary or permanent that is depending on the tasks they are asked to complete. For example in a matrix organization, employees of the matrix organization generally reported to them both a product or project manager, as well as a functional manager like several departments, heads HR department, marketing department, financial department, and many more. Employee bosses can be changed for different projects. 



Advantages and disadvantages of matrix structure 



There are several benefits of the matrix structure. One of the important benefits of the matrix structure is that it provides an opportunity for cross-collaboration between staff and departments that may not be seen usually. There are several other key advantages which are listed below. 



Better coordination and control 



This structure is very much suitable to coordinate and control the functional activities and projects activities. The project leader has got the responsibility to establish a good coordination system in the organization. Project leaders allow subordinates to establish good bonds among colleagues and work together. It is the way that can help to understand each other strengths and weaknesses. Functional authority flows downward and departmental flows are horizontal which enables to establish better coordination and control among team members.



Adopting dynamic environment



In the matrix organization, it is the combination of two different management strategies that will help to adopt the dynamic environment of the organization. It is a hybrid type of structure that can easily adjust to changes in the business world. The project managers have freedom of functional work and they get all the urgent feedback information regarding the project quickly that making it easy to work. Along with project mange, employees are very professional in their work and belong to different functional areas so adjustment does not become problematic for them.



Effective use of resources 



Project structure makes very much effective use of resources available. The whole staff and project manager are specialists in various areas that experience help to maximum utilization of resources. They know better how to utilize project capacity and time, and how to use human and financial resources in a better way. 



Effective decision making



In This type of organization, people work on the project as a team. They are allowed to take participate in decision-making and problem-solving activities. They make all efforts for the betterment of the project and have the authority to know about day-to-day activities. They frequently do meetings and share ideas and thoughts for projects. 



Development of teamwork



The matrix organization facilitates team work and itself is teamwork. Employees from various departments work together in the spirit of a team and complete projects successfully. It gives opportunity to employees to learn from each other skills and make a great team for the organization. 



Disadvantages of the matrix structures



Matrix structure is like any other structure, it cannot away from challenges. There are several challenges upfront when implementing the matrix structure that is highlighted below. 



Lack of clarity



They are commands from two different superior functional and departmental that became problematic for employees to understand duties and their role in the project. They may not be permanent for one project and their duties change with projects. This is the reason for creating ambiguity in their role in projects. 



Costly structure



Matrix organization structure involves huge overhead expenses. There are very much paperwork and information collection that involves heavy costs. Most employees are also specialists and they charge heavy remuneration and facilities as well. 



The conflict between the functional and project manager 



There will be two types of specialists functional and project managers. They have several conflicts goals or priorities, and those conflicts can be the reason trickles down to team dynamic. Conflicts will affect the performance of the team and create uncertainties also among the team members. Sometimes they have different opinions and priorities that make confusion in teams. It is very difficult to balance these two types of experts like project authority and functional authority. 



Problem of overspecialization 



Organization structure creates the problem of overspecialization in some situations, specialists from both functional projects works gather to show many complex problems of the organization. For example, when experts are gathering to solve problems they waste valuable time in supporting their ideas, and sometimes problems remain unsolved.


 

Lack of commitment     


           

In a matrix organization, there will be a lack of commitment among the employees toward the project. No one will be responsible and loyal to the completion of the project. Due to the lack of commitment project completion delays, project cost increase, Useless, and until the project is completed. They will get a good amount with salary and benefits, this also decreases their commitment. 



Bottom

The matrix structure provides a new system that can address better the complexities of large projects. I hope this information helps full to know about the matrix structure and how to implement it effectively in their business.     

  

 

 

What are the principles of effective communication?

 Business communication is a complex process. To make this communication process effective and achieve the objective of business then we should consider these things like messages and context understandable to the receiver, clear, appropriate language, adequacy, informative, physically and psychologically viable, relevant to the objective of business, and many more. There are several principles of effective communication that allow communication to achieve the goals of the business. 


General principles of the effective communication   


    

Any form of communication like email, blog posting, and zoom meetings, written, good communication skills are required. The general principle for effective communication may be outlined as follows. 


Make a goal 


This is the first step of communication, what you want to convey to your audience. It is very important for any business set targets and specific deadlines and expectations. Leaders mostly communicate the goal and objectives of the business. With the help of communication skills, leaders convey their strategies and plan to employees. If the communication of the goal is clear then it may be easy to achieve the purpose of business. There are several challenges in the path of achieving the aims of the business but effective communication makes little easy for works. 


Clarity 


The communication process, to serve the purpose, must ensure clarity of communication. A business communication process should be clear when it is expressed in a language and transmitted in a way that will be comprehended by the receiver. 

The basic objective of communication is to bring two minds together, and that can be possible only when the sender conveys a message understood by the receiver in the same way. So, the communication should be simple and clear, easy in understanding.   



Adequacy 



The goal of communication is to ensure an optimum flow of information. Message and context must be enough and cover all the required points. The process of communication must ensure that all those messages are necessary for various individuals in the organization to maintain the flow of their duties. In addition, this flow in respect of different types of the message should be adequate.


 

Understandable and attention  



This is the main principle of communication. The receiver should understand properly its meaning and connect it with full attention. Despite the clarity of expression, the well-composed message may appear difficult and may not be understood because of half-hearted attention. So the receiver needs to full attention and concentrate over while the message while listening and reading. It is very important for proper understanding of communication. 



Timing 



The message should reach the time receiver when it requires it. Late messages are meaningless and several times can be the reason for a huge loss in business. A suitable period should be allowed to consider the urgency and time requirement of the information. 



Integrity 



Business communication should support the structure and objects of business. Communication is a tool for securing and maintaining coordination between the superiors and subordinates needed to meet the objective of the business. The communication process from top to bottom should pass through every stage of line authority. 



Strategic use of informal organization 



Informal organization originates from the need for transmitting the information. It continues with or without the approval of managers and may have constructive or deconstructive ends. So it should be the duty of the manager to use it as a manner of communication. 



The balance between adaptability and uniformity 



The smooth working of an organization depends in the part upon uniformity. Yet the adoption should be restored when difficult situations and individuals are involved. The order should be restored and reports may be communicated through the systems that provide an opportunity for adapting to the specific situation.  



Interest and acceptance 



The purpose of business communication is to secure a positive response. The person needs to take interest in the context and accept it. Downward the communication is more effective when the morale is good, in upward communication gets through when the superior is a good listener. 



Feedback   



Communication is complete when the feedback is received from the recipient. The sender needs to be required to make improvements in any communication. The feedback is important for the sender to understand whether the receiver has understood correctly or not. In the face to face communication sender can easily obtain feedback through facial expression and body language. In written communication, the sender can get feedback through the appropriate use of words. 



Consultation 



Effective communication gives opportunities to all people to take part in making strategies and plans for the business. The obvious benefits of suggestions while making plans for communication and push to them contribute for achieve the goals of the business.  



Two-way communication 



One-way communication is not desirable. It cannot fulfill the purpose of business communication. Both the sender and the receiver should communicate with each other. It also helps in the feedback process. 



Courtesy 



Courtesy should maintain at a cost in any communication. In business communication, especially, courtesy is a good sign of organization. Use of polite language, an apology for mistakes, things for a favor, answering a letter without delay, and many more are some examples of courtesy in business communication.



Bottom

Communication is one of the important sources of the sharing thoughts, opinion, ideas, and many more. Communication is tool for solving the misunderstanding regarding business or anything else. These are mentioned principle of the communication will helps to improve in effective communication in business.