Wednesday, 29 June 2022

What are the meaning of variance and the types of variance analysis?

The term variance refers to the study of the deviation between the actual costs and standard costs due to various causes and reasons as well. The variance analysis is the process of calculating the difference between the actual and standard costs. The variances analyzing process interprets the difference. With the help of variances and analysis, businesses can fix each variance as well their causes. .this will help not only in finding the difference preplanned cost and actual cost but also in taking a corrective decision as well. 

The standard costing systems will primarily help to calculate variances. Variance analysis is an important tool for the management of business because management can take steps timely for the solving numerous found variances for the achievement of the desired goals of the business. There are several types of variances such as the purchase price variances, labor rate variances, variable overhead variances, fixed overhead variances, labor efficiency variances, and many more. Here in this guide, there will be discussion on all the essential variances which are required for the effective operation of business activities. 

Types of the variances

There are several types of variances before they measure any variances. Generally, the variances are classified on the following basis. 

  1. Based on the element of cost 
  2. Based on controllability 
  3. Based on impact 
  4. Based on nature 

These four are the major variances that will help to calculate many deviations in the actual and standard cost. There will be discussion further all the mentioned variances which are subordinately cost variances conclude in the different variances. 

Based on the element of cost 

The variances based on element of cost refers to different types of cost variances in the business. Mainly these are sub categraonizations are into three types of variances. 

  1. Material cost variances: it will assist the business to calculate the deviation between the standard cost of material and the actual cost of material for the desired output. In this calculation of process, the manager can consider purchase material on a day-to-day, weekly basis, monthly basis, compare it with the actual and find the difference. After finding the divergence business operators take appropriate decisions for matching the forecast of material cost.
  2. Labor cost variances: it is used for analyzing the difference between the actual direct wages paid and the direct labor cost allowed for the output to be achieved. 
  3. Overhead variances: overhead variances are the difference between the standard cost of variances allowed for planned output and actual output that will be in terms of production per unit or labor hours. 

Based on controllability 

The controllability variances are categorized into two parts. 

  1. Controllable variances: the controllable variances have concluded the combination of the fixed variances and variable variances. Fixed variances are fixed no matter how much output the business wants. Variable variances can depend on the output.  Businesses can find the standard cost and actual cost according to the unit of production. 
  2. Uncontrollable variances: external factors are responsible for the uncontrollable variances. The business operator has no power or is unable to control the external factors. 

Based on impact 

The impact variances are classified into two types. 

    1. Favorable variances: whenever the actual costs are lower than the forecast costs for certain production units that are pre deter minted level of activity. The business management is determining for getting actual output at lower cost than the standard costs. It shows the effective operation of the business.
    2. Unfavorable variances: the unfavorable variances refer to actual costs that are higher than the standard cost of pre-determined production. It shows the poor management and inefficiency of the business operation. Management needs to take strict decisions and deeper analysis of the causes of variances. 

Based on nature

Nature variances are classified mainly into two parts. 

  1. Basic variances: basic variances are those variances that are considering monetary rates in account such as prices of raw materials along with onsidering non-monetary factors units in quantities and time of production. Monetary variances include labor price variance, material price variance, and expenditure variance. Non-monetary variance concludes material quantity, labor efficiency variance, volume variances, and many more. 
  2. Sub variances: the baisc variances are further classified in the sub variances example labor efficiency variances are subdivided into two parts labor mix variances and labor yield variances. Similar illustration, variable overhead variances is sub-divided into the variable efficiency and variable overhead expenditure variances. 


Variance analyses typically involve all the activities that show the different causes of variances in income and expenses for the certain period. In this guide, we discussed all the type variances that are majorly used by the business. Variances help to fix the responsibilities so that managers can ascertain the person responsibility for the poor results. I hope this piece of information is help full for understanding the variances in business.      






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