Tuesday, 26 July 2022

Rapidly spreading monkey pox outbreak a global health emergency

 Recently the world health organization has reported its highest alert level for spreading monkey pox outbreak, declaring the virus effecting on public health at international level. Now the WHO viewed as the outbreak, this is significant enough that shows the threat to global health. It needs to respond immediately and take steps for preventing the virus from spreading further and potentially escalating into a pandemic. However the declaration does not impose any requirement on government of the nations, it requires take urgent actions. The WHO can only issues guide line and recommendations to member stats and nations, not impose. Member states need to report all events that pose a threat to global health. Now we talk about the monkey pox so it needs to understand  what monkey pox is, how it affects people and what are symptoms of monkey pox.

What is monkey pox?

Monkey pox is reference to wildlife; it is caused by the monkey pox virus. The only similarity between to the chickenpox and monkey pox is that they both are virus. Monkey pox is very similar to smallpox which was finished with roots thorough the global vaccination effort in 1980. There are two virus that formed by orthopoxvirus family. Monkey pox is them And it is not transmissible or form a smallpox in all over the body. Some researchers say it could be mutate and became the greater threat to humans. One study published in 2008 that warned if the monkey pox were to be introduce in unvaccinated population then it could be became an epidemic. Monkey pox can be transmitted person to person this was reveled in 2003 report. Before the 2022 outbreak, the monkey pox founded outside of Africa.  It was first time found in the monkey  in 1958 that is the reason it call monkey pox. It is not originated from the animals and the sources of disease in not found yet.

Common symptoms of monkey pox

The most common symptoms of the monkey pox are fever, headaches, muscle aches, uneasy feeling, and weakness in body. There are a lot of rash also present, resembling pimples and pus filled blister in all over the body including face, mouth, genitals, feet, and hand.

Transmission of virus

The transmission of monkey pox is animal to human. It occurs from direct contact of with blood, bodily, fluids, and mucosal of infected animals. There are several reports also published by various institutes for human transmission. According to CDC says the risk of spreading is contacting with people who suffering from monkey pox closely. In the current outbreak is spreading from person to person contact. It could be developed an infection from the droplet respiratory particles by spreading too much time face to face with the infected person. There are several reports that declared it can spread through direct contact with infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids.

Reported cases on different nations

There are several nations that declared health emergency before the WHO declared. The UN agency announced last month that monkey pox is need consider global emergency, because the cases of monkey pox have increased rapidly in last few weeks. The UN continually is pushing the WHO director general to issues alert in global level. 

The WHO held meeting for collecting evidence and make recommendation to director general before declaring a global health emergency. The committee was not able to reach a conclusion on transmission of monkey pox so they declared health emergency on basis of increasing the cases of monkey pox. They issue the highest alert based on the rapid spread of the outbreak around the global.

According to the WHO report, more than 16000 cases of monkey pox have been reported across the 70 nations as of now in this year and the 77% of cases are reported last early June. The mostly the reason of infection is having sex with the infected person. Five deaths have been reported in Africa this year from this virus. There is no death reports are happen in other nation so far. 


There are different methods uses for diagnosing the monkey pox by clinics but some symptoms must be consider such as rash illnesses, chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infection, syphilis, and other body infections. If the monkey pox is suspected then the health worker should collect enough samples. It transported safely to laboratory with appropriate capability. Confirmation of monkey pox highly depends on the type and quality of specimen and different types of laboratory test. Specimens should be properly packed with all the appropriate precaution and shipped in accordance with national and international requirement. The polymerase chain reaction test preferred by the laboratory and it gives most appropriate result in accuracy and sensitivity.


as of now nations use vaccination of smallpox. Study shows that it is effective in preventing monkey pox. Right now, there is no availability of vaccination against the monkey pox. There are several research center are working on the vaccination of monkey pox.


Nations needs to raise awareness of risk factor and educate people about the measures of monkey pox. They need make a strategy against the spreading of monkey pox. Scientific studies are now underway to assess the feasibility and appropriateness of vaccination for preventing and controlling of monkey pox.             



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